Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation  of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected
to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. These mechanical characteristics in
food can be further sub-divided into primary and secondary sensory characteristics which have proven to be correlated
to sensory perception.

Primary Characteristics

PARAMETER           SENSORIAL DEFINITION                                                  INSTRUMENTAL DEFINITION

 HARDNESS            Force required to compress a food between molars.          Peak force of the first compression  

                              Defined as force necessary to attain given deformation.          cycle

 SPRINGINESS       Rate at which a deformed material goes back to its          Height that the food recovers during the

                               undeformed condition after deforming force is removed.      time that elapses between the end of                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                  first bite and the start of the second bite

 ADHESIVENESS   The work necessary to overcome the attractive forces         The negative area for the rfirst bite,

                             between the surface of the food and the surface of               representing the work necessary to  

                            other materials with which the food comes in contact            pull compressing probe away from 

                           (tongue,teeth). work required to pull food away from surface      sample.

COHESIVENESS   The strength of internal bonds making up the body of the       The ratio of positive force during the 

                              product (greater the value the greater the cohesiveness)       second to that of the  first 

                                                                                                                    compression cycle 

                                                                                                                     (downward strokes only)

Secondary Characteristics

PARAMETER                   SENSORIAL DEFINITION                                                  INSTRUMENTAL DEFINITION

BRITTLENESS           Force at which a material fractures. Related to the                 The first significant break in the    

 (Fracture force )         primary parameters of hardness and cohesiveness,                    first compression cycle.

                                  where brittle materials have low cohesiveness. Not

                                 all foods fracture and thus value may relate to hardness

                                   if only single peak is present.

                                  Brittle foods are never adhesive.

GUMMINESS             Energy required to disintegrate a SEMI-SOLID food                 Calculated parameter:

                                 product to a state ready for swallowing. Related to              Product of hardness x cohesiveness

                                  foods with low hardness levels

CHEWINESS            Energy required to chew a SOLID food product to a                   Calculated Parameter: 

                             state where it is ready for swallowing. attribute is di˜fficult       Product of Gumminess x Springiness

                               to quantify precisely due to complexities of mastication         (essentially primary parameters of

                               (shear, compression, tearing and penetration).                        Hardness x Cohesiveness x  


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