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Any processing plant has its own by products. Agro-based industries have this in huge quantity. Waste disposal becomes an additional problem for the processors. In case of cocoa plantations, different kinds of waste materials are found. Much work has been carried out on utilization of these wastes. Many literatures are available which report the successful utilization of cocoa byproduct.
 
Before knowing the utilization of cocoa byproduct, we should know what are the byproducts from cocoa processing industries. These include cocoa pod husk, pulp, nib and some times cocoa powder. Sweatings are the liquid waste obtained as a result of fermentation of pulp. The use of these sweatings for manufacture of alcohol or vinegar has been reported. These sweatings can also be used for the Productionof jam and jellies as it contains 0.9 – 1.19% pectin. Cocoa pod husk can be used for the manufacture of black soap. In Nigeria, soaps are being made by using potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and potassium carbonate. Taiwo and Osinowo (2001) studied the formation of black soap by substituting these chemicals with cocoa pod husk ash. Cocoa pod ash contains potassium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, in significant amount (16.07% and 56.73% respectively). This property of cocoa pod along with other agro wastes was being harvested and they succeeded in making black soap out of cocoa waste.

Use of cocoa pod in animal feed has been reported by Sampath et al. (1990). Cocoa pod has high nutrition value in terms of protein content, energy value and other micronutrients. Beneficial effect of cocoa pod, shell, dust etc. incorporated in the diet of poultry has been reported by Abiola and Tewe (1991). In case of lambs, increase in body weight was observed when they were fed with 12 -30% cocoa pod and an increase in egg weight and percentage egg Productionwas reported when hen were fed with cocoa pod.

Increase in the health consciousness and increase in demand for natural food ingredients, have attracted attention towards the natural antioxidants. Azizah et al. (1999) successfully extracted antioxidants from cocoa byproduct such as cocoa nibs, powder and shell. These antioxidants were extracted using methanol, petroleum ether, chloroform as solvents. Out of these, 12 extracts from 3 byproduts exhibited high antioxidant property.

References:
1. Science of Cocoa Processing by Sharma and Naidu l Jain Brothers, New Delhi
2. Abiola, S. S., Tewe, O. O. 1991. Chemical evaluation of cocoa byproduct. Trop. Agric. 68, 335-336.
3. Azizah, A. H., Nik Ruslawati, N. M., Swee Tee, T. 1999. Extraction and characterization of antioxidant from cocoa by-products. Food Chem. 64, 199-202.
4. Sampath, S. R., Kumar, M. N. A., Sundareshan, K. 1990. Evaluation of cocoa bean byproduct for ruminant feeding. Indian J. Animal Nutr. 7, 45-48.
5. Taiwo, O. E., Osinowo. F. A. O. 2001. Evaluation of various agro-wastes for traditional black soap Production. Bioresource Tech. 75, 95-97.

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Comment by prem g on August 1, 2011 at 8:05am

thank u sir!

SCIENCE OF COCOA PROCESSING  by SK Sharma and MM Naidu (like)

Comment by Sanjeev Sharma on July 31, 2011 at 5:19pm

Hi,

As far as antioxidant properties of cocoa byproducts are concerned, I have quoted one article

I would like to give its abastract

Extraction and characterization of antioxidant from cocoa by-products. Food Chem. 64, 199-202.
Azizah, A. H., Nik Ruslawati, N. M., Swee Tee, T. 1999

Antioxidative properties of extracts from six types of cocoa by-products have been studied. Seven different solvents differing in polarity were used to extract the antioxidants from cocoa by-products. Out of 42 different extracts tested, twelve extracts from cocoa powder, natural cocoa powder, cocoa nib and cocoa shell exhibited strong antioxidant activities using a diene conjugation formation method. The characterization studies done indicated that increasing extract concentration resulted in increased antioxidant activities at all the levels studied, namely 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm. Methanol proved to be the best solvent in extracting antioxidants from cocoa by-products, followed by mixtures of chloroform, ether and dichloroethane and mixtures of chloroform, methanol and dichloroethane. The antioxidative activities of the extracts were found to be stable at temperatures below 50°C and exhibited highest activity at neutral and alkaline pH. It appeares that flavonoid compounds may be responsible for the antioxidative activities in cocoa by-products and complete elucidation of the active compounds is in progress.

 

As far as antioxidant property of cocoa assuch is concerned, one complete chapter on cocoa health benefit is there in SCIENCE OF COCOA PROCESSING  by SK Sharma and MM Naidu, Publisher Jain Brothers.

I will try to make summary of that and present it here.

Meanwhile you can see this http://www.foodpathshala.com/news_details.php?news_id=65

 

Comment by prem g on July 31, 2011 at 8:36am

good topic sir!., could you plz give a note on anti oxidant properties of cocoa by products? 

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