Seven principles of HACCP are
1. Hazard assessment: All steps in the manufacturing process, including the use of raw materials and ingredients, processing, distribution, and marketing, through to use by the consumer should be evaluated for identification of known biological, chemical, or physical hazards.
2. Critical control point determination: This is the process to determine which of the identified hazards require control such that loss of control results in an unacceptable safety risk. The identification of the critical control points requires a thorough familiarity with the food process, including each step in the operation from the receiving of fresh fruits and other raw materials to the shipping of the finished product.
3. Establishment of specification: Appropriate target levels and associated tolerances need to be established so that they can be used as criteria for determining whether the steps that are identified as critical points are actually in control.
4. Development of monitoring and testing procedures: Testing procedures for monitoring each critical control point will have to be developed to ensure that each critical control point is consistently monitored.
5. Establishment of corrective action: This involves the development of procedures that must be followed whenever the monitoring process demonstrates that an identified critical point is out of control on the basis of the established target levels and tolerances, including the obligatory corrective action to be taken in the event that this deviation from control occurs.
6. Record keeping: A system of documentation needs to be developed that will describe all aspects of the HACCP program and give evidence of its functioning based on all data obtained from testing and analysis, any deviation, and corrective actions.
7. Verification procedures: Procedures need to be established as part of the HACCP program to verify that the operating HACCP system consistently conforms to the established procedures
The application of HACCP principles consists of the following tasks as identified in the Logic Sequence for Application of HACCP
1. Assemble HACCP team
The food operation should assure that the appropriate product specific knowledge and expertise is available for the development of an effective HACCP plan. Optimally, this may be accomplished by assembling a multidisciplinary team. Where such expertise is not available on site, expert advice should be obtained from other sources. The scope of the HACCP plan should be identified. The scope should describe which segment of the food chain is involved and the general classes of hazards to be addressed (e.g. does it cover all classes of hazards or only selected classes).
2. Describe product
A full description of the product should be drawn up, including relevant safety information such as: composition, physical/chemical structure (including Aw, pH, etc.), microcidal/static treatments (heat-treatment, freezing, brining, smoking, etc.), packaging, durability and storage conditions and method of distribution.
3. Identify intended use
The intended use should be based on the expected uses of the product by the end user or consumer. In specific cases, vulnerable groups of the population, e.g. institutional feeding, may have to be considered.
4. Construct flow diagram
The flow diagram should be constructed by the HACCP team. The flow diagram should cover all steps in the operation. When applying HACCP to a given operation, consideration should be given to steps preceding and following the specified operation.
5. On-site confirmation of flow diagram
The HACCP team should confirm the processing operation against the flow diagram during all stages and hours of operation and amend the flow diagram where appropriate.
6. List all potential hazards associated with each step, conduct a hazard analysis, and consider any measures to control identified hazards
(SEE PRINCIPLE 1)The HACCP team should list all of the hazards that may be reasonably expected to occur at each step from primary production, processing, manufacture, and distribution until the point of consumption.
The HACCP team should next conduct a hazard analysis to identify for the HACCP plan which hazards are of such a nature that their elimination or reduction to acceptable levels is essential to the production of a safe food.
In conducting the hazard analysis, wherever possible the following should be included:
The HACCP team must then consider what control measures, if any, exist which can be applied for each hazard.
More than one control measure may be required to control a specific hazard(s) and more than one hazard may be controlled by a specified control measure.
7. Determine Critical Control Points
There may be more than one CCP at which control is applied to address the same hazard. The determination of a CCP in the HACCP system can be facilitated by the application of a decision tree , which indicates a logic reasoning approach. Application of a decision tree should be flexible, given whether the operation is for production, slaughter, processing, storage, distribution or other. It should be used for guidance when determining CCPs. This example of a decision tree may not be applicable to all situations. Other approaches may be used. Training in the application of the decision tree is recommended.
If a hazard has been identified at a step where control is necessary for safety, and no control measure exists at that step, or any other, then the product or process should be modified at that step, or at any earlier or later stage, to include a control measure.
8. Establish critical limits for each CCP
(SEE PRINCIPLE 3)Critical limits must be specified and validated if possible for each Critical Control Point. In some cases more than one critical limit will be elaborated at a particular step. Criteria often used include measurements of temperature, time, moisture level, pH, Aw, available chlorine, and sensory parameters such as visual appearance and texture.
9. Establish a monitoring system for each CCP
(SEE PRINCIPLE 4)Monitoring is the scheduled measurement or observation of a CCP relative to its critical limits. The monitoring procedures must be able to detect loss of control at the CCP. Further, monitoring should ideally provide this information in time to make adjustments to ensure control of the process to prevent violating the critical limits. Where possible, process adjustments should be made when monitoring results indicate a trend towards loss of control at a CCP. The adjustments should be taken before a deviation occurs. Data derived from monitoring must be evaluated by a designated person with knowledge and authority to carry out corrective actions when indicated. If monitoring is not continuous, then the amount or frequency of monitoring must be sufficient to guarantee the CCP is in control. Most monitoring procedures for CCPs will need to be done rapidly because they relate to on-line processes and there will not be time for lengthy analytical testing. Physical and chemical measurements are often preferred to microbiological testing because they may be done rapidly and can often indicate the microbiological control of the product. All records and documents associated with monitoring CCPs must be signed by the person(s) doing the monitoring and by a responsible reviewing official(s) of the company.
10. Establish corrective actions
(SEE PRINCIPLE 5)Specific corrective actions must be developed for each CCP in the HACCP system in order to deal with deviations when they occur.
The actions must ensure that the CCP has been brought under control. Actions taken must also include proper disposition of the affected product. Deviation and product disposition procedures must be documented in the HACCP record keeping.
11. Establish verification procedures
(SEE PRINCIPLE 6)Establish procedures for verification. Verification and auditing methods, procedures and tests, including random sampling and analysis, can be used to determine if the HACCP system is working correctly. The frequency of verification should be sufficient to confirm that the HACCP system is working effectively. Examples of verification activities include:
Where possible, validation activities should include actions to confirm the efficacy of all elements of the HACCP plan.
12. Establish Documentation and Record Keeping
(SEE PRINCIPLE 7)Efficient and accurate record keeping is essential to the application of a HACCP system. HACCP procedures should be documented. Documentation and record keeping should be appropriate to the nature and size of the operation.
Documentation examples are:
Record examples are:
For better understanding of HACCP implementation, lets have small assignment.
Let us consider a comany named "Foodpathshala Sweet Syrup Co Limited" which makes sweet coloured syrup. Product specs are as follows
Brix = 55%
Colour = 200 ppm
Flavour - 0.3%
1. Sugar seiving
2. Water filtration
3. Mixing of sugar and water (to get 25% sugar)
4. Addition of flavour
5. Addition of colour
6. Heating and concentration upto 55% brix
7. Filling in bottles
Now lets do HACCP analysis of this line ...
In HACCP, all GMP, GHP,GLP come into account, but do GAP(good agricultural practices) also come in this case especially. After hazard assessment , if it is found that sugar is critical ppoint, then, the manufacturing company will set critical limits for its sugar requiremnt, which has to be fullfilled by the supplier. Then he has to follow GMP, and in turn his supplier, has to follow GHP,, So for HACCP cerification by ultimate product company, requires its supplier also to follow the other two Practices well, Or will those suppliers also will follow HACCP, as done by syrup company?
Since HACCP is a bit costly certification system, can the small scale food industries afford it to increase their market value?
I would like to answer in three sections ;-
1. GLP, GAP and GHP are not part of HACCP. HACCP deals wth indentificaiton of hazards, determination of critical points, establishing critical limits, their monioring, verificaion and documentation (as explained earlier)
2. Any ingredient can not be critical point. Rather it is step in the process wchich will eliminate or reduce a hazard to acceptable limit. Also this control point will be last point in the process further which hazard can not be controlled by any process. So, sugar can not be critical limit. However, any hazard brought by sugar can be controlled in the production line where sugar will be used. And that point will be critical point (e.g. seiving)
Small scale industris (e.g. sugar mills) can have system or even HACCP implemented in their pocess (eg use of magnets) but will not hae any connection with GAP.
3. With the increasing awareness with respect to food safety, even small scale will have to follow food safety rules. This can not be avoided.
Thanks for replying in detail Vaishali, so it means critical point is determined in the processing step, where any ingrdient can be hazardous ultimately to the product and its elimination is important. Sp CCP's are determined scientifically by the above 7points and maintained further, But Doesnt this point come under GMP? Does GMP and GHP only considers Hygiene related issues and not any other hazards due to materials used in the process for product manufacture?
The critical limits set are to be verified and tested in order to know if they are implemented properly or not. This critical limit can be tested during process and can be tested also in lab to check presence of any hazardous chemical in the process, SO does this regular checking does not come under the rules of GLP?
The sugar industry mentioned in the above example has critical point as seiving, which eliminates any hazardous element in sugar to stop moving further to other succeding products manufactures using this sugar. With increasing awareness to food safety these days,and its affordability by small scale industries, is it not logical to ask that pesticide issues etc, related to fruits and vegetable these days , which are chemical hazards to all the food chain, and cannot be eliminated after the harvesteing of plants, leading to further increment only in processed foods, Then does the GAPalso comes under HACCP, for the farmers, twho may want to implement HACCP in their process, and harvesters and suppliers, who supply food materials, further to many industries?
HACCP is certification. GLP, GMP, GHP and GAP are practices. These practices are good to have for proper implementation of HACCP but NOT must to have..
Both are separate things. HACCP is for a particular process and product. How to maitain that is set of good practices. But these practices are not mandatory
This discussion is going interesting so i jumped in, Let me give an example:
A small scale dairy industry ( FP Milk Ltd.) manufacturer of FP pasteurized milk, procure milk directly from local milk vendors. These vendors does not follow GMP/GHP and FP milk is HACCP certified. The incoming milk is contaminated but to eliminate risk in end product they pasteurize milk with certain time temperature comibination.
This time & temperature which is solely responsible to eliminate risk is our CCP.
Temp varies between 76-78C so 76 is critical limit.
Time varies b/w 38 & 35 minutes then for 76c 38 mins is critical limit, and for 78c 35 mins is critical limit.
GMP,GHP,GLP,GAP,HKP are all practices to reduce risk but they cannot eliminate risk. These are practices to follow.
FInally a good explanation by a good example, thanks, UDITand also Sanjeev.
A good presentation HACCP...